Haitian slave, president and later emperor of Haiti who represented the black majority of the country against the mulatto elite.
Soulouque was born a slave while Haiti was still under French rule.
He participated in a successful revolt in 1803 that expelled the French and he remained in the army of the newly formed nation.
In 1847 he was named president with the backing of a group of mulatto leaders who thought he could easily be made to take orders from them.
In 1849 he ousted them and created a following of his own.
He adopted the title of emperor and ruled as Faustin I.
Soulouque mede several unsuccessful attempts to conquer the neigbouring Dominican Republic. On one occasion the United States, France and Great Britain pressured him to desist.
In 1859 the mulattoes rallied under the chief of the general staff and deposed him.
Soulouque escaped and went into exile where he died.